Hidden Motives And Lament
“Then Jesus said to the crowds and to his disciples, “The scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses’ seat, so do and observe whatever they tell you, but not the works they do. For they preach, but do not practice. They tie up heavy burdens, hard to bear, and lay them on people’s shoulders, but they themselves are not willing to move them with their finger. They do all their deeds to be seen by others. For they make their phylacteries broad and their fringes long, and they love the place of honor at feasts and the best seats in the synagogues and greetings in the marketplaces and being called rabbi by others. But you are not to be called rabbi, for you have one teacher, and you are all brothers. And call no man your father on earth, for you have one Father, who is in heaven. Neither be called instructors, for you have one instructor, the Christ. The greatest among you shall be your servant. Whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted. “But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you shut the kingdom of heaven in people’s faces. For you neither enter yourselves nor allow those who would enter to go in. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel across sea and land to make a single proselyte, and when he becomes a proselyte, you make him twice as much a child of hell as yourselves. “Woe to you, blind guides, who say, ‘If anyone swears by the temple, it is nothing, but if anyone swears by the gold of the temple, he is bound by his oath.’ You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold or the temple that has made the gold sacred? And you say, ‘If anyone swears by the altar, it is nothing, but if anyone swears by the gift that is on the altar, he is bound by his oath.’ You blind men! For which is greater, the gift or the altar that makes the gift sacred? So whoever swears by the altar swears by it and by everything on it. And whoever swears by the temple swears by it and by him who dwells in it. And whoever swears by heaven swears by the throne of God and by him who sits upon it. “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint and dill and cumin, and have neglected the weightier matters of the law: justice and mercy and faithfulness. These you ought to have done, without neglecting the others. You blind guides, straining out a gnat and swallowing a camel! “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and the plate, but inside they are full of greed and self-indulgence. You blind Pharisee! First clean the inside of the cup and the plate, that the outside also may be clean. “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitewashed tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but within are full of dead people’s bones and all uncleanness. So you also outwardly appear righteous to others, but within you are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness. “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you build the tombs of the prophets and decorate the monuments of the righteous, saying, ‘If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we would not have taken part with them in shedding the blood of the prophets.’ Thus you witness against yourselves that you are sons of those who murdered the prophets. Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers. You serpents, you brood of vipers, how are you to escape being sentenced to hell? Therefore I send you prophets and wise men and scribes, some of whom you will kill and crucify, and some you will flog in your synagogues and persecute from town to town, so that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah the son of Barachiah, whom you murdered between the sanctuary and the altar. Truly, I say to you, all these things will come upon this generation. “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to it! How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you were not willing! See, your house is left to you desolate. For I tell you, you will not see me again, until you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.’ ””
Preaching Without Practice
In this part of Matthew's gospel, Jesus makes it clear that the scribes and Pharisees are hypocrites. They proclaim a higher morality but do not follow it. They are prideful and enjoy the attention they get from making others follow the rules. Jesus reminds the hearers that the most important person is a humble servant. Just as an actor in Greek theater would wear a mask to portray a different character than their own, the hypocrisy of these leaders is a false mask they wear to hide their true feelings and motives. Jesus instructs the crowds and disciples that the Pharisees should be observed and respected for their position of authority, yet not followed. Sadly, they do not help the people but demand a lot from them. He directs that the title of "rabbi" should be reserved for Him, and "father" for their heavenly Father. Jesus emphasizes that those who exalt themselves will be humbled, while those who humble themselves will be exalted.
With the crowds and the disciples listening, Jesus began seven condemnations of the scribes and Pharisees for their hypocrisy. The initial two denunciations focused on their spiritual guidance of the people, and the third criticized an element of their traditional instruction that dealt with swearing and oaths. The third, fourth, and fifth critiques appear to make a group of condemnations with the topic of blindness. Jesus scolds the scribes and Pharisees for their lack of care for the Law and their excessive emphasis on their own outward appearance and their monuments. This demonstrates their false holiness.
Jesus ends his criticism of the Pharisees by warning them of the punishment they will receive for persecuting his messengers (prophets, wise men, scribes), which will result in them being held accountable for the bloodshed of biblical martyrs.
Jesus speaks to Jerusalem directly after finishing his address to the crowd and disciples. He expresses sorrow and particularly condemns the scribes and Pharisees (23:29–36). Jerusalem is seen as one who has killed the prophets, and Jesus uses language from the Psalms and Prophets to illustrate God's hope of having Israel come to Him as a family, but they do not accept it. Instead of receiving the grace that was offered and enjoying the privileges that God had given his covenant people, they refused, and they would come to desolation.
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